Popular Music of World War I: A Living Archive


In entering metadata in the two archives (Myers and Driscoll) certain conventions have been followed. These are explained below; the contents list that follows takes you down this page to the pertinent section.

Conventions that apply throughout

TR, BL, TC, etc., are abbreviations for “top right,” “bottom left,” “top center,” etc. The words “top,” “bottom,” and “center” are always written out, however.

Song titles appear in headline style, regardless of the capitalization used in the publication, except when capitalization is a distinguishing feature.

Page numbers are given as “p. 2,” “p. 3,” etc.; for multiple pages, as  “pp. 2, 4, 6,” etc.; for a page range, as “pp. 2-6”, etc. Pagination that doesn’t appear explicitly in the publication is given in square brackets: “p. [1],” “p. [6],” etc. The cover is treated as the first page numerically but identified as “cover”; thus the verso of the cover is “p. 2“ or ”p. [2].” [top]


There are often discrepancies between the title printed on the cover, the title that appears inside, at the head of the music, and the title phrase as it appears somewhere in the lyrics. In general, the cover and first page of music are compared; if the titles differ in punctuation or other details, the most grammatically correct has been chosen. When uncertainty remains, the lyric phrase has been considered. Commas have not been inserted unless they occur on the cover, the first page of music, or in the title line of the lyric. Differences in hyphenation for “today,” tomorrow,” and “goodbye” have been preserved. Subtitles are treated as part of the title if they are never in parentheses and they appear both on the cover and on the first page of music with equal prominence. Parenthesized subtitles are included in the title only if they are given equal typographic weight or, in a very few instances, to be consistent with contemporaneous reports of the song. Otherwise they appear among alternate titles. Generic subtitles (“Hymn,” “Waltz,” “Patriotic Song,” etc.) are treated as descriptors and do not form part of the title, though they will generally appear under Musical Note or Musical Genre. Sometimes an exception is made for the subtitle “March”: this is included in the title only if it is in the same font and size as the title on the cover or the first page; otherwise it is treated as a descriptor. For titles containing an initial phrase, such as “Good Bye and Luck Be with You, Laddie Boy”, the choice of primary title has been guided by size of typeface and by contemporaneous usage; in this instance, for example, the song was nearly always referred to as simply “Laddie Boy.” [top]

Alternative title

All variant forms are listed here, together with the location in which each appears. Virgules indicate line breaks. Significant variants in punctuation (for example, subtitles that appear both with and without parentheses) are listed separately; however, no notice is taken of variant commas or full stops. [top]

Composer and lyricist

Names are presented last name first, with full names (expanded from initials) or pseudonyms provided in square brackets after the name as printed. Multiple names are given in the order they appear on the publication. [top]


Entries take the form “<city>, <ST> : <publisher>”. The names of major publishers have been standardized; small firms or self-publications are entered exactly as they appear on the covers or in the copyright lines. When multiple cities are indicated, the choice among them has been guided by the copyright registration information; subsidiary locations are not noted. When a street address appears on the cover, it is presented as a separate subentry even if it runs continuously with the publisher’s name. [top]

Date of publication

This is the year given on the publication itself, usually at the bottom of the first page of music. Note that this may not be the same as the year that copyright was registered. [top]

Date – copyrighted

This is the date that copyright was registered, given as YYYY-MM-DD to facilitate searches; or, when appropriate, “No copyright registered.” Note that this is not necessarily the date on which actual copies of the music were received by the copyright office; that is usually a few days later, though in some cases it actually precedes the registration date. When the difference is significant, the deposit date is indicated and discussed under Historical Note. [top]


Nearly always this will be “musical notation”; the field is used primarily in integrating the archive, item by item, into larger repositories like WorldCat. [top]

Physical description

The pagination of front matter, music, and back matter is summarized using a standard cataloguing format, supplemented by a phrase indicating the performing forces. Size is not noted. [top]


Here is provided a brief summary of the title’s significance, reception, related works, and other pertinent contextual information. [top]

Historical note

Historical details and clarifications are provided here, generally in four subentries, as follows:

(a) Discrepancies or clarifications of any kind regarding the title and names (composer, performer, lyricist, publisher, artist, illustrator, printer).

(b) Clarifications concerning dedicatees, images, iconography, and textual or musical references.

(c) The overall publication history of the title, including the presumed earliest possible appearance of this particular imprint, as derived from the contents of the back cover, the performance history, or information in journals and newspapers. Different imprints of a single title are distinguished using four tiers: editions, printings, variants, and versions.

“Editions” distinguish between successive versions of a single title that manifest substantive changes in text, music, engraving, or publisher. Changes in engraving include, for instance, compressing three or four pages of music into two, even if the original plates were reconfigured to accomplish that. Changes of size (from large to small) are not distinguished as new editions unless they are specifically marketed as such (for instance, by including “War Edition” or something similar on the cover).

“Printings” distinguish between successive versions of a single title that are not “editions” but that have significantly different front or back covers. Front covers that vary only in photographic inserts (usually of performers) do not constitute separate printings unless the back covers have changed, nor do front covers that differ only in their colors. The copyright deposit copy, when available, is assumed to be the first printing. For subsequent back covers, printings are ordered first by copyright dates of music advertised, if that can be determined, with the earliest copyright assumed to be the earliest printing; if not, they are ordered by information from trade journals or newspapers, if that is available; if not, they are ordered alphabetically by the compositions listed. “Printings” also distinguish items that differ in informative details—for example, the inclusion (or not) of a printer’s imprint.

“Variants” distinguish between versions of a title that contain only minor variants in covers or in the marginal matter on interior pages and that do not, in themselves, constitute publication information sufficient to provide a date of release. Variants most commonly distinguish between different inset photographs on front covers or different wartime slogans inserted in interior pages. In some cases (for example, “America, I Love You”), “printings” distinguish sets of publications that have the same front cover, with “variants” used to distinguish between different back covers within a single printing.

 “Versions” distinguish between simultaneous publications of a single title that are identical except for performing forces (with lyrics added when needed). Thus “versions” for voice and piano are distinguished from “versions” for piano alone when both appear at the same time and with the same copyright date, attributions and covers. “Versions” also distinguish between publications of the same title in different keys (high and low “versions” of a single song, for instance). Unless there is evidence to the contrary, the publication date is assumed to be the same for all versions.

(d) A brief summary of the performance history and any recordings or piano rolls that were issued. [top]

Musical note

Here are summarized the style and technical features of the music, all musical quotations that have been identified, and discusses any uncertainties that arise concerning the notation. [top]


Dedicatees are noted exactly as they appear, preceded by their location(s). Information about the dedicatees, when known, is entered under Historical Note. [top]

Subject – topic and Subject – geographic

These contain conventional subject headings as set out on the LC authorities webpages. No effort is made to be exhaustive, but when existing catalog records contain an appropriate set of subjects, these have been incorporated. [top]


The text is presented exactly as printed, including punctuation, misspellings, and errors. The latter are not identified with “sic”; any real confusions are discussed under Historical Note. Each verse or refrain is a separate subentry, preceded by a bracketed identifier: “[verse 1],” “[refrain 1],” and so forth. Refrains that repeat exactly are noted only with the identifier. Within each subentry, virgules indicate line breaks; the length of a line is determined primarily by rhyme and meter, with consideration also given to the placement of upper-case letters. [top]

Musical genre

This contains a short word or phrase characterizing the musical style or genre. Contemporaneous phrases such as “semi-high-class ballad” are used when appropriate; for more information on these, see E. M. Wickes, Writing the Popular Song (1916), digitized and freely available on HathiTrust and Internet Archive. [top]

Repository and Conditions of Use

The institutions that house the two collections (Myers and Driscoll) have slightly different policies about the use of digitized archival material, presented here. [top]


Here appear the names of persons or studios that created images or art that was incorporated into the cover, including photographs when they can be attributed. This field is left empty if all the artwork was created by the cover artist or designer, who is listed separately. Names are presented as for composers and lyricists. [top]


Here appear the names of persons or studios that designed the cover or back cover. These are usually identified by signatures or icons on the images itself, but in some cases attribution is made on the basis of historical information or stylistic features. Names are presented as for composers and lyricists. [top]


Printers’ signatures or icons are noted exactly as they appear, together with their location. Iconographic and typographic details are noted only when they have historical implications. [top]

Cover description

A single extended description of the cover art and design, incorporating especially any iconography associated with the war, is followed by a brief summary of the color, printing process, and signature. Covers can be assumed to be produced lithographically unless otherwise noted. Note that different colors are not distinguished as separate printings or editions. Subentries contain cover text(s) other than the title, authors, and publisher details. These include descriptive phrases (“Patriotic Song,” “Soldiers March,” etc.), but exclude phrases that are already incorporated into the metadata (“Words by,” “Music by,” “Song,” etc.). They also include prices and arrangements, when these appear. [top]

Back cover description

This field contains a description of the back cover, including the titles advertised therein together with their copyright dates, when known. “Covers” are thumbnail reductions of cover images; “samples” are full pages of music (usually the first page); “incipits” are short excerpts, usually of the first few bars; “titles” are text-only advertisements; “text” is a block of informative text, usually providing contextual or historical information. Covers, samples, incipits, and titles appear in ”lists” (a single column) or “rows” (several columns).

Hence the format for the back cover description can take many forms, including but not limited to:

List of titles: <heading>: <title 1 (©)>; <title 2 (©)>, etc.

Text and samples, in a simple frame: ; <title 2 (©)>, etc.

Twelve samples in four rows:
First row: <title 2 (©)>; <title 3 (©)>
Second row: <title 2 (©)>; <title 3 (©)>

Sixteen samples in four rows:
First row: <title 2 (©)>; <title 3 (©)>; <title 4 (©; cover)
Second row: <title 2 (©)>; <title 3 (©)>; <title 4 (©; cover)
Text: <heading>; <brief description>
List of titles: <heading>; <title 1, etc., if less than thirteen>

Interior description

Here appears, in order:

Text that appears on interior pages, in order. This sometimes includes full pages (usually the verso of either the front or back cover) that contain advertisements for other songs; entries for these follow the conventions for back covers. In other cases text or advertisements, sometimes with incipits, appear on the borders of interior pages. Note that the full copyright line at the bottom of the first page of music is not included.

Text that appears on the gutters of conjoined interior pages.

Plate numbers. [top]

Performance medium

Summarized here are the performing forces required or implied by the music as printed. For choral works the number of parts is not noted, nor is the presence or absence of soloists. [top]

Original Location, Local Identifier, Collection Title

These are all standard cataloguing fields. The collection title is the name of the digital archive; the original location specifies the box and, for Myers items, folder in which the physical copy can be found; and the local identifier is the index number for the item as found in the database that underlies and supports the archival images. [top]

Popular Music of World War I: A Living Archive


Everything is a work in progress. Nothing is complete until it is utterly forgotten. Something takes its final form only when no further interactions occur.

And so it is with the Myers and Driscoll collections and digitized archives that underpin this tool for research. In no respect are these complete, nor, the gods willing, will they ever be. Every interaction enriches and enlarges them.

In describing this tool, it can be separated into four components:
the physical artifacts
the digitized images
the spreadsheet
the metadata

But in using this tool, of course, it is the relations—not the components—that matter. Strength rests in the manner in which each manifestation compensates for weaknesses in the others; thus, taken together, they mitigate somewhat the ways in which each is incomplete. It is these relations that following description hopes to elucidate.

The physical artifacts
Items and titles
The digitized images
The spreadsheet
The archival metadata

The physical artifacts

The Myers and Driscoll collections consist primarily of sheet music: unbound, single copies of music compositions—in this case, largely short works for voice and piano, with lesser numbers of pieces for piano solo or vocal ensemble. The collections are housed at two different institutions: the Myers at the Sousa Archives & Center for American Music at the Urbana campus of the University of Illinois, and the Driscoll at the Newberry Library in Chicago. The Driscoll collection came to the Newberry in 1968; the Myers collection came to Illinois in 2005. In both cases the collections remain today essentially as their respective collectors had organized them, although they have been placed in new folders and boxes as required for archival conservation.

James Francis Driscoll (1875–1959) lived his entire life in communities near Boston, Massachusetts. His trade was civil engineering, but he was an accomplished amateur organist and choir director. He collected sheet music for sixty years, primarily by searching pawn shops, auction houses, and similar establishments, but also by negotiating exchanges and purchases with dealers and other collectors. His policy was always to trade up, acquiring better copies to replace inferior copies in his collection, with surplus copies being traded or sold. Thus, with rare exceptions, every item in his collection is distinct.

James Edward Myers (1913–2001) resided in Springfield, Illinois, but travelled widely. He, too, was an amateur musician, playing in University of Illinois bands while a student in the 1940s, after returning from service in World War II. For six years he managed an innovative farm in central Illinois; then he joined the family business, a department store in Springfield, as vice-president. Like Driscoll, Myers built his collection primarily by scouring local second-hand shops and garage sales; but, unlike Driscoll, he kept duplicate copies of some of his titles.

Both collectors organized their holdings by topic. Driscoll’s system of categories was quite elaborate; a full description can be found in the Newberry’s “Inventory of the James Francis Driscoll Collection of American Sheet Music.” Music pertinent to World War I occupies eight boxes (163–170), but there are surely additional pertinent items that Driscoll placed in other categories, such as “Patriotic Songs” or “Presidents.” No attempt has been made to locate and incorporate these additional items, however; the digitized archive is made entirely from the materials in the eight “World War I” boxes.

Myers’ categories are much broader, but within the categories, songs are arranged first alphabetically by title and then by date of publication. Within “Military Music,” then, there are sets of folders that contain “A titles,” “B titles,” and so forth; and the individual folders are dated “A Titles, 1915–1916,” “A Titles, 1917–1918,” and so forth. It’s relatively simple, then, to extract the items that are pertinent to the war and that were published during the war years (which are taken to be 1914–1920, for present purposes). A finding aid prepared by Mary Miller and David Shin details the contents, folder by folder.

Both collectors made errors in classifying their material; both, for example, occasionally misread an item’s year of publication, which was often given in Roman numerals, in Italics, and in small type, sometimes blurred or broken. It is relatively easy to mistake MCMVIII for MCMXVIII (1908 for 1918); indeed, in preparing inventories and lists in the course of this project, several different librarians and scholars have themselves made similar errors. They are still being found; in this respect, both the physical artifacts and the digitized images are over-complete. Or, we could say, the process of cross-checking is incomplete.

Myers also occasionally classified as “military music” items that have nothing to do with war; on the other hand, the arrangement of his collection ensures that nearly all the items are from the correct period (1914–1920). Driscoll’s categories ensure that virtually all his “World War I” items are indeed pertinent to the war; but he included items that were not published during that period. Some of these result from errors, as noted above; but some are earlier publications that were repurposed or even reissued during the war years. And some titles issued in the 1920s are clearly war-related, issued as memorials or for veterans organizations.

To determine the set of artifacts that would form the basis for this project, then, a review was undertaken of all the “World War I” materials, as categorized by the two collectors, item by item. Each was checked for uniqueness, relevance, and publication date. Exact duplicates were set aside, as were pieces that were irrelevant to the war. Publications issued after 1920 were carefully checked to be sure their subject matter was pertinent; publications issued before 1914 were similarly checked (for example, by means of newspaper searches) to discover whether they were performed or reissued during the war years. There remained 1746 items in the Driscoll collection—the vast majority of the materials occupying boxes 163 to 170, since Driscoll rarely retained duplicates. Myers did retain duplicates, and so the 934 items that remained represents about eighty percent of the total contents of the appropriate folders in his collection. Hereafter the phrases “Myers collection” and “Driscoll collection” refer to these winnowed sets of music, not to the entire physical subcollections housed at the Newberry and at the University of Illinois. [top]

Items and titles

In discussing these and similar collections, it is important to distinguish between items and titles. An item is a single piece of sheet music: an object that one can hold in one’s hand or set on the piano. A title is the name given to that object. Nearly always, for these particular objects, the title is taken to be the words or phrase printed on the cover and inside, above the music itself. The titles on the cover and the inner pages do not always coincide exactly; for more about this, see the discussion of Title in the page about Conventions.

A single title may be applied to several items that are different in significant ways: they might have different cover illustrations, or different back covers, or the music itself might take a different form: solo song, arrangement for band, arrangement for vocal ensemble, and so forth. In both collections, then, the number of items is larger than the number of titles. The Driscoll collection contains 1746 items and 1489 titles; the Myers contains 934 items and 736 titles. Put another way, 85 percent of the titles in the Driscoll collection are found in a single form only; 15 percent of the titles take different forms and thus are associated with two or more items. For Myers, the respective figures are 19 percent and 21 percent.

This is not a significant difference, but it does warrant an explanation. Both collections were built primarily from local sources—Driscoll in Massachusetts, Myers in Illinois and its neighboring states. Massachusetts—Boston, in particular—was the home of the major so-called “standard” publishers: Oliver Ditson, Arthur P. Schmidt, and others. These purveyors of educational  and “high-class” music usually issued only a single version of a given title, printing a substantial number of copies and warehousing them over many years or even decades. Driscoll, collecting locally, would have acquired a significant number of titles from these publishers, and that would have tended to increase the percentage of his acquired titles that exist in only one form. Illinois, on the other hand—and Chicago, in particular—was the location from which major national distributors of commercial, “Tin Pan Alley” publications (“jobbers” in the trade jargon) disseminated their goods: firms like McKinley Music Co. and Forster Music Publisher. Tin Pan Alley publishers issued small quantities of their titles; if the title was a hit, they would reissue successive printings as long as the market responded. And, often, these successive printings were different in some way. Hence, Myers, collecting through the city and state, would tend to have acquired multiple versions of a single title.

This somewhat intuitive interpretation could be tested using the two collections; one could, for example, find out the percentage of Driscoll titles that were issued by “standard” publishers and, similarly, the percentage of Myers titles that came from Tin Pan Alley firms. That requires only a relatively simple series of tags and filters applied to the collection using the components of the research tool this project provides. It’s a job for the future, along with several dozen others; but it serves to illustrate the potential for research that is constituted by the mix of data, images, and physical repositories that make up this research resource. [top]

The digitized images 

After the physical collections, the digitized images themselves are more nearly final than is anything else. A four-year process, described in “History,” generated high-quality images of 2,654 items of sheet music—approximately 13,320 printed pages. Yet there is still work to do: a small number of those digitized items are flawed in some way, and, as errors are found, corrections are gradually being entered. Twenty-six items were digitized but have yet to be added to the Driscoll archive; these will raise the current total from 1720 to 1746. In the Myers collection, another thirty or more pertinent items have since been located and will be digitized at some time in the future. More ambitiously, there remains the possibility of extending the archive to all the public domain items in the Myers and Driscoll collections, not just those relating to World War I. And more ambitiously still, additional collections at both host institutions (the University of Illinois and the Newberry Library) are candidates for inclusion. [top]

The spreadsheet

The spreadsheet—a crucial component in this tool for research—is less complete but in a perfectly usable state. It has been developed by means of a series of passes through it (done alphabetically by title) that has occupied about six years. Each pass includes a careful search to see if more information is available, especially about editions, printings, and variants; when a new version is found, a new database entry is created. Since digitization and data extraction proceeds at a remarkable pace in hundreds, if not thousands, of institutions, each pass has thus far approximately doubled the database size. The most recent pass started in autumn 2018 and has reached titles beginning with G at this writing. Hence, although titles beginning with A through F constitute about 18 percent of the total titles, database lines for A through F constitute 25 percent of the database. The imbalance, of course, will rectify itself as work continues. 

It is important to note that all the data in the database is derived from online digitized copies of sheet music. That is, no effort has yet been made to visit physical archives to incorporate additional variants of titles already entered, nor have catalogues been systematically checked for such variants. Hence, when assertions are made about the order of printings or the history of a particular title, they must be regarded as somewhat inconclusive: the data is implicitly incomplete. Again, the lack of completeness is meant to encourage additional research; and again (and always) users of this website and the digitized archive are strongly encouraged to contribute their own research insights and data to build a stronger, more complete totality. [top]

The archival metadata

The metadata entered into the Myers and Driscoll web archives is the least complete component of this tool. Basic metadata—title, composer, lyricist, publisher, date of publication—is present for all titles; but, of course, errors and omissions are still being found and remedied. For Myers items only, the lyrics for all texted music have also been entered—with the same caveat. But the remaining fields for the remaining items, in both collections, have been populated only in part. Since the web archive was designed to be used in tandem with the spreadsheet, the latter can compensate in large part for the lacunae in the web metadata; for more information about this, see the “User’s Guide.” 

Work continues, and fields are continually being updated. But certain fields—specifically “Historical note,” “Comment,” and “Musical note”—require quite substantial research that must be conducted title by title. This is a slow process; the entries already in place were accomplished over eighteen months of, admittedly, part-time and sometimes sporadic work. It will surely be another four or five years before any kind of completeness is in sight—and even then, there will always be work to do.

In the meantime, however, the metadata is useful and informative, and the collection as a whole is an exceptionally rich resource. Rather than denying the public access for months or years, it was decided to make all the work available, explicitly as a work-in-progress, with updates continuing as time and personnel permit. That seems to have been a wise course, since the informal “peer review panel” constituted by colleagues, scholars, and the lay public has so far been positive. Work has been done; work is being done; work will be done; and the best work of all will be that which, unexpectedly, comes from persons wholly unaffiliated with the Newberry or with Illinois. The great advantage of a public, partially complete jigsaw puzzle is that everyone is welcome—indeed, urged!—to find and place a missing piece. [top]

Popular Music of World War I: Publications

As described in “History,” planning began in 2014 for two 2015 conferences that took place in within weeks of each other, the first at the University of York and the second at the University of Illinois. Gayle Magee and Christina Bashford were my collaborators, colleagues, and friends during the planning process and in the conferences themselves, and shortly afterwards we began discussing several possibilities for publications. One, clearly, was an edited collection of essays that would draw on the conference presentations and on scholars known to us who were already active in the field. A second possibility was a special issue of a journal. And a third option was a single-authored monograph—an option that especially interested me, since I’d previously considered writing a monograph on settings of “In Flanders Fields.”

We felt we needed to move quickly, since it was very desirable that, if possible, all publications fall within the centennial period (2014–2018). A special issue could be more quickly implemented than the edited collection; and, as it happened, Gayle was about to become the general editor of American Music, published by the University of Illinois Press. It was relatively easy for her to persuade Michael Pisani, the outgoing general editor, to designate the winter 2016 issue of the journal a special issue on “Music and the Great War,” with Gayle herself serving as guest editor.

The University of Illinois Press would also be the most logical publisher for the edited collection, not only because it was the Press of the host institution for one of the conferences but because, for fifty years, its series “Music in American Life” has been the preeminent source for publications that treat American music in relation to social and political matters. Both Gayle and I knew the series editor, Laurie Matheson, well; and, as a bonus Laurie is an exceptional soprano and would be one of the performers in the lectures we devised and presented (singly and together) over the next few years. We wrote a proposal; peer reviews were positive; and a contract was signed at the start of November 2016.

I agreed to write an article for the special issue and a chapter in the edited collection. Since I was also contemplating an eventual monograph that would focus on the music industry during the war years, I decided to use the article and chapter to provide what would become bookends for the monograph: the article would consider the Mexican War of 1914, which was in some ways a direct precursor to American engagement in the Great War; and the chapter would focus on the aftermath of the war, specifically on music concerning loss and memory.

All three of us, we agreed, would co-edit the collection; and all three of us would write a “Prelude,” “Interlude,” and “Postlude” that would frame and contextualize the individual chapters. We constructed these as a conversation among representatives of Canada (Gayle), Britain (Christina), and the United States (me), and we tagged the text with icons to make clear who was “speaking.”

In writing both the article and the book chapter, I drew extensively on the spreadsheets I had constructed for the Myers and Driscoll collections, supplementing those with additional titles discovered through copyright records, newspapers, catalogues, and similar sources. The spreadsheet underlying the article was published, in modified form, as an appendix, but the spreadsheet for the book chapter was to be available on a web companion. The creation of that has been delayed, but I supply below both of the spreadsheets, with also three color images cited in the chapter text but not included. The book Over Here, Over There is available from the University of Illinois Press; the article is available in digital form on JSTOR.

Popular Music of World War I: A Living Archive


This is a living archive.

It is not a collection of images—charming, surprising, attractive, or appalling though they might be. Nor is it a reconstructed museum specimen—the bleached bones of something that was once alive and vital. Nor is it even an historical compendium of names, places, firms, titles, or tunes. It is all of those things, of course—but it aspires to be more.

Its design is meant to emulate an organism: it is in the relations between its parts that life is found; the parts, dismembered, cease to breathe and grow. But in an important respect it will always fall short of true vitality: it has no agency, no power to act. That agency rests with you—a different organism; together with this archive you constitute a larger being whose interrelations create meaning, insight . . . life.

These webpages are meant to facilitate—but not control or prescribe—those interrelations. The five components—description, history, conventions, spreadsheet, and user’s guide—can be accessed in any order; and, indeed, each component includes clickable links to the others, to encourage you to wander among them. You are invited to work with the components and the archives to build new relationships within and among them and you.  Indeed—and more—you are asked to create your own invitations to others: publish your thoughts in a forum of your choice; write blogs, write wikipedia articles, write learnèd tracts; clothe the archival organism in your own discoveries by means of the email address or comment box provided on every webpage. 

This living archive is a tool for research—your research.

Popular Music of World War I: Lectures